Electrochemical immunoassays

Molecular Pathway's technology (patent 7,166,208) (text) also enables simple, high performance, immunochemical test strips and arrays that produce easy to detect electrochemical signals.  This produces extremely simple assays that can be read by simple, low-cost meters, suitable for field use and home medical instrumentation.  A CIP of this patent (20070289880) focusing on enzymatic and coagulation assays is in progress.

An apoenzyme reactivation immunochemical sensor is similar to a conventional blood glucose test-strip, with the exception that the strip uses apoglucose oxidase instead of glucose oxidase.  The apoglucose oxidase is enzymatically inactive because its cofactor, FAD has been removed.  Here the FAD cofactor is conjugated with an antigen, and this antigen is, in-turn, bound to an antibody. 

When excess test antigens are added, the test-antigens displace the bound FAD from the antibody.  This FAD reactivates apoglucose oxidase.  The reactivated glucose oxidase then reacts with glucose (present in the test chemistry), producing an electrochemical signal that is detected by the test strip's electrodes.

In contrast to other proposed electrochemical immunosensor technologies (reviewed here), the apoenzyme reactivation technology is relatively simple, and leverages off of the large amount of electrochemical blood glucose test-strip infrastructure.  An additional advantage is that since we have an IP licensing focus, our apoenzyme reactivation electrochemical technology is both available and affordable.

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